The English name for the surfactant is Surfactant, which refers to those substances that have a strong surface activity, can significantly reduce the surface tension of the liquid, and change the interface state of the system. Surfactant molecules generally consist of a non-polar hydrocarbon chain and more than one polar group. The hydrocarbon chain is typically more than 8 carbon atoms in length. The polar group may be a carboxylic acid and a salt thereof, a sulfonic acid and a salt thereof, a sulfate ester and a soluble salt thereof, a phosphate group, an amino group or an amine group, and a salt thereof may also be a hydroxyl group, an amide group, an ether bond, or a carboxylic acid. Ester group and the like.
Relationship Between Surfactants And Nanotechnology(a)
Surfactants, due to their structural characteristics, exhibit superior functions such as emulsification, washing, and defoaming in solution. Therefore, the application of surfactants has always been the focus of research and development in the daily chemical industry. With the understanding and research on the structure and properties of surfactants, people have begun to use surfactants to prepare nanomaterials based on the results and performance characteristics of surfactants in solution, and through the study of the structure and function of surfactants. The characteristics of surfactants, the generation of nano-particles, the formation process, the intermediate control of nanoparticles, the performance control of nano-particle surface, the surface structure change of nano-particles, the design of nano-structure materials, the regulation of nano-structure materials, etc. Explore.
In the research of nanomaterials, only by effectively controlling the microstructure of nanomaterials, it is possible to apply it more effectively in high-tech fields such as microelectronic devices. Therefore, the morphology control of nanomaterials has become the current material science research. The frontiers and hot spots. The surfactant has amphiphilic properties and can adsorb on the solid surface. The steric hindrance effect of the long molecular chain can avoid the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. It can self-assemble in solution to form micelles, reverse micelles, microemulsions, vesicles, liquid crystals, etc. The ordered micro-environment of these aggregates can be used as a microreactor or template to achieve the regulation of nanomaterial morphology. However, people are still not clear about the mechanism of action and reaction kinetics of active agents in the preparation of nanomaterials. The understanding of many preparation processes is still in the stage of experience or semi-experience, and there is no complete theoretical basis and system. . Therefore, the research on the role and mechanism of surfactants in the morphology control of nanomaterials is of great significance for the preparation of nanomaterials.